· The first report of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The coronavirus was originally named 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) on 12 January 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO has officially named coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The Coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world and has been officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 is a highly contagious virus that originated in Wuhan.
· Coronaviruses coated with RNA viruses with specific sensors ranging from 60 nm to 140 nm in diameter with spike-like spikes on their surface making them look like crowns under an electron microscope; hence the name coronavirus. Coronavirus belongs to the family coronaviridae according to the Nidovirales system. Coronaviruses are divided into four categories: Alpha-Coronaviruses (α), Beta-Coronaviruses (β), Gamma-Coronaviruses (γ), and Delta Coronaviruses (δ). The most important means of transmission were respiratory drops and communication transmissions.
· During the 1st wave, the central government imposed a national shutdown on March 25, 2020. As of mid-March 2021, the second wave had begun, and on April 09, the highest number of cases (144,829) was reported in India. Wave 2 changes at an astonishing rate compared to wave 1. There may be a few factors that contribute to the increase in the number of cases in the second wave. It is noteworthy that the mutant virus has a strong transmission capacity and its incubation time is short. An unknown respiratory disease epidemic broke out in Wuhan, China, on December 12, 2019, which may be related to the marine animal market. Several studies have suggested that the bat may be a SARS-CoV-2 water reservoir.
· Symptoms may include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia or difficulty breathing. Rarely, the disease kills. These symptoms are similar to the common cold or flu, which is more common than COVID-19.
Preventive measures reduce the chances of infection. The steps to take to protect ourselves from Coronavirus are as follows
Clean our hands often:
Ø Wash your hands frequently with cleanser and water particularly after you have been in an open spot, hacking, or sniffling.
Ø On the off chance that cleanser and water are not promptly accessible, clean your hands with a hand sanitizer that contains 60% alcohol.
Ø Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
Avoid close contact:
Avoid close contact with people who are sick. Put distance between yourself and other people if Corona Virus Disease is spreading in your community. This becomes important for people who are at higher risk of getting very sick.
Steps to protect others:
Ø Stay home if you are sick.
Ø Covering our mouth when coughing.
Ø Cover coughs and sneezes.
Ø Throw used tissues in the trash.
Ø Immediately wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
Ø Wear a face mask if you are sick.
Ø If you are sick: You should wear a facemask when you are around other people (e.g., sharing a room or vehicle) and before you enter a healthcare provider’s office.
Ø Cleaning a counter.
Ø Clean and disinfect.
Ø Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily.
Ø If surfaces are dirty, clean them: Use detergent or soap and water before disinfection.
Ø Follow Social Distancing.
Vaccines are effective interventions that can reduce the high burden of diseases globally. COVID-19 vaccines are being introduced across the world to develop immunity to the disease. Vaccines based on viral vectors, nucleic acid-based vaccines, attenuated vaccines, and protein-based vaccines.